► July 5th. A memorial service was held at the Madrid cemetery with the participation of tastefully dressed old men who had iron crosses pinned to their rigid collars. Similar signs bore sashes on the wreaths. Gathered man remained in silence over the grave for longer period of time. Than they raised they hands and saluted - Heil! The deceased was known in Spain as Robert Steinbauer owner of the lucrative company "Export-Import Immobilen" but in fact Otto Skorzeny was Obersturmbannführer-SS, an ace of German intelligence, "Hitler's favorite commando". (...)he worked as Eva Peron's bodyguard. Later he was hiding using following names: Dr. Wolff in Hungary, Solar in Germany and Belgium, Mr. Eable and Mr. Sible in the USA, Rolf Steiner in Germany, Pablo Lerno in Switzerland, France and Italy, Muller and Antonio Scorba in Austria and since 1955 in Spain as Robert Steinbauer.
► October 18th. The Odessa File movie premiere. The film was based on a novel by Frederick Forsyth published in the same year under the same title. It has been translated into about 30 languages and sold over 10 million copies. Both the novel and the movie aroused great interest and recalled that despite the fact that 30 years passed since the end of the war the justice was not served. Most of the war criminals escaped punishment and under changed names worked, conducted business, getting rich and living in luxury - that was outrageous back in 1974 as it is today... (more on Odessa - see year 1951).
► Both German states were accepted to join the United Nations.
► August 6th. Hermine Braunsteiner-Ryan was taken on board of the Lufthansa flight in the company of two federal agents and after a few hours escorted to a jail in Frankfurt am Main. Two years later the court trial of the "Stomping Mare" started in Düsseldorf. Hermina Braunsteiner-Ryan, extremely sadistic SS female concentration camp gourd, was stomping many women to death and that gave her the nickname.
(...), but on the basis of paragraph 47, Chapter 2 of the Code of Military Criminal Court Wippenbeck was not sentenced. It is the article "Reichsgesetzblatt", from 1940, Part I, p. 1348 about the obligation to follow orders. Paragraph 47 was very often the base to acquit war criminals from the charges because of subordination and "following orders of superiors."
On 20 December 1948 the denazification court in northern Württemberg classified Wendler as "Haupschuldiger" or "major offender". Wendler appealed against this decision but on 28 April 1945 the court upholds the first judgment and yet on 20 December 1949 Richard Wendler was released and returned back home. From now he lived in Munich where he run a law firm. However that was not enough for him. Criminal strived for a full rehabilitation. As a lawyer he knew how to write appeals. And indeed: on 12 September 1952 he was moved to a "Belasteter" category or "offender". On this basis his confiscated property was returned. However Richard Wendler was still not satisfied and fighting for complete clearance. He appealed for clemency ... and surprisingly on 1 November 1955 Wendler was classified as "Mitläufer" or "follower."
(...) was the main accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity in the process of judges at the American military tribunal in Nuremberg. He was sentenced to life in prison.
However in 1950 like other German criminals Franz Schlegelberger was released from prison for health reasons. He was 74 years. Over the next 20 years - until his death in 1970 - he was receiving a retirement pension of 2.894 Deutschmark (for comparison: the average monthly wage in Germany was at that time 535 DM).
Initially after the war Arnold Strippel was hiding but in 1948 he was recognized by former Buchenwald prisoner. Strippel's process began on 31 May 1949 in Frankfurt am Main. He was charged with the murder of 21 Jewish prisoners in Buchenwald and many other mistreatments. He was sentenced to 21-fold life imprisonment and additional 10 years in prison. On 21 April 1969 Strippel was released from prison in Butzbach and five months later another trial started against him for crimes in Buchenwald. This time the court in Frankfurt decided that Strippel did not personally shot any of the 21 Jewish prisoners, set aside the judgment of 1949 and sentenced him to 5 years imprisonment. In addition the court found that Strippel already was in prison for longer than that so he received 121 500 DM as compensation for too long prison sentence (!).
► November 26th. In the view of approaching 20 year time-bar for proceedings of Nazi crimes as per the Penal Code from 1932, honoring the Nuremberg principles, in 1965 Poland presented to the United Nations an initiative for non-applicability of statutory limitations to war crimes and crimes against humanity. The convention was adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by United Nations General Assembly resolution 2391 (XXIII) of 26 November 1968. The Convention stated that the undertaking states must adopt the internal legislative measures to allow the extradition of the perpetrators of these crimes regardless of the date they were committed. The German Bundestag decided not to participate to the UN Convention.
A year later the Bundestag extended the limitation period from the existing 20 to 30 years. It was not until 10 years later, on the 3 July 1979 that the law was passed, introducing non-applicability of statutory limitations to genocide crimes. The amendment was passed by a small majority - 255 votes in favor (SPD) and 222 votes against (CDU).
► Franz Stangl, the commander of the extermination camps in Treblinka and Sobibor was captured. His postwar fate was surprising but also somehow typical for German oppressors avoiding justice. After the war Stangl concealed his identity and unrecognized got released from Austrian prison in 1947. Then, along with another criminal Gustav Wagner - deputy commander of the Sobibor camp, they fled to Italy. From Italy with the help of Vatican officials (including Bishop Alois Hudal, see year 1948) Stangl escaped to Syria. In 1951 Franz Stangl and his family left for Brazil. He lived there for several years using his own name. It took 6 years to hunt Stangl down, the investigation was led by Simon Wiesenthal, which resulted in the 1967 capture.