1964

► January 24th. Provincial Prosecutor's Office in Bydgoszcz, Poland, initiated an investigation and collection of evidence against Hans Krüger. On the 2nd June in Chojnice a press conference took place about Hans Krüger's criminal activity. Gathered in the Primary School No.1 witnesses easily recognized Krüger both on his family photographs and the pictures published by West German press. During the trial several witnesses testified: Czeslaw Fons, Marian Bąkowski, Leon Ulandowski's daughter, Franciszek Kaszubowski, Franciszek Pabich, Marta Klimczur. Wanda Stylcz was telling about how Krüger was sending people to concentration camps. Leon Styp Rekowski gave detailed description of the martyr's path from prison to the so-called "Department" - where terminally ill lived before the war - and from there straight to the "Death Valley". Hans Krüger was back then the master of life and death. It was Hans Krüger who was approving lists of Poles being shot in the Chojnice "Death Valley".

Witness B. Wisniewski, Assembly Hall, Primary School No. 1 in Chojnice, 2 June 1964 (source:  historiachojnic.pl )

Witness B. Wisniewski, Assembly Hall, Primary School No. 1 in Chojnice, 2 June 1964 (source: historiachojnic.pl)

Wehrmacht marched into Chojnice on the 1st September 1939. They quickly installed the German police structure, state and party authorities. Soon the terror began. On 15th September Germans carried out the first execution in the occupied Chojnice. Three residents were killed: Michael Bębenek (official), Leon Schoen (railwayman) and Wladyslaw Schreiber (junior high school student). On the 17th October 1939 Hans Krüger arrived to Chojnice and was appointed the head of the NSDAP municipal organization and the head of the local District Court (Landgericht).  Between October 1939 and January 1940 Germans murdered about 500 county residents - mainly representatives of the local intelligentsia: teachers, priests, postal workers, court borough and the customs officials, as well as doctors, students, merchants, artisans, industrialists and entrepreneurs. Polish population christened the place of execution near Chojnice as the "Death Valley".

Coffins with the remains of the executed in the "Death Valley" before the funeral on 8 December 1945 (source:    historiami.pl   )

Coffins with the remains of the executed in the "Death Valley" before the funeral on 8 December 1945 (source: historiami.pl)

In the last days of the war the Chojnice "Death Valley" became a place of mass executions again. At the end of January 1945, Germans murdered there a column of about 1000 to 2000 prisoners that were marched to the west ahead of approaching Russian Red Army. The exact number of victims remains unknown because the bodies were burned.
All collected material in 1964 and witnesses testimonies against Krüger were sent to the Higher Regional Court in Cologne. Although there was enough evidence of Krüger's criminal actions he was not released to stand a trial in Poland. The German Federal Court discontinued the criminal case against Hans Krüger due to lack of the proof of guilt (!).
After 1945 Krüger was involved in organizing the German Federation of Expellees and was the federation's first chairman in years 1959-1964 (see year 1957). From 1957 until 1965 he was a Bundestag member (member of parliament) and in years 1963-1964 a federal minister (Federal Minister for Displaced Persons, Refugees and War Victims). His actions were described in the "Krüger, Hans: Ein Blutrichter Hitlers", Brown Book: War and Nazi Criminals in the Federal Republic. Krueger died in 1971 in Bonn at the age of 69.
► January. An arrest warrant was issued for Ludolf von Alvensleben. SS-Gruppenführer Ludolf von Alvensleben's nickname was "Bubi" ("little boy") because of his appearance. Alvensleben was responsible for the mass executions of the Polish citizens in Pomerania, among others in the "Death Valley" and in the forests near Wejherowo. Historians estimate the number of genocide victims murdered by the Germans in Piaśnica was around 12 to 14 thousand people. Piaśnica is sometimes called "the Kashubian Golgotha". Mass executions in Piaśnica were part of the so-called Action Intelligentsia ("Intelligenzaktion") which was based on Hitler's assumption that "Only a nation whose managerial layers are destroyed can be pushed to the role of slaves." The action was directed against the Polish elite, mainly of intelligence in the Polish lands annexed to the Third Reich. During "Intelligenzaktion" mass executions were planned and methodically executed on about 50 thousand people: teachers, priests, representatives of the land owners, professionals, social and political activists and retired military personnel. Another 50 thousand people were deported to concentration camps, where only few survived.

In April 1945 Alvensleben got captured by the British forces and held in the internment camp at Neuengamme but he managed to escape. After a short stay in Schochwitz in early 1946 he moved with his family to Argentina, where he obtained a citizenship under a false name of Carlos Lucke. Alvensleben's friendship with the dictator Juan Peron provided him with invincibility. Alvensleben lived in Buenos Aires until 1956, then moved to Santa Rosa de Calamuchita where he was a respected citizen. He purchased several plots of land in Calamuchita. On 22 July 1964 Ludolf von Alvensleben became a deputy chairman of the city Santa Rosa. Six months earlier a district court in Munich issued an arrest warrant for Alvensleben for killing at least 4247 people in Poland in autumn of 1939. Argentina rejected the extradition request of the criminal and Alvensleben remained in Santa Rosa where he died in 1970.

Map of plots of land purchased by the SS-Gruppenführer Ludolf von Alvensleben in Santa Rosa de Calamuchita (source:    http://interdefensa.argentinaforo.net/t3250-ludolf-von-alvensleben-el-nazi-que-buscaba-uranio   )

Map of plots of land purchased by the SS-Gruppenführer Ludolf von Alvensleben in Santa Rosa de Calamuchita (source: http://interdefensa.argentinaforo.net/t3250-ludolf-von-alvensleben-el-nazi-que-buscaba-uranio)

► November 28th. New extreme right-wing NDP party was found in Hanover. National Democratic Party of Germany continues operations of the German Reich Party (German: Deutsche Reichspartei, DRP) disbanded in 1965, which in turn was a successor of the outlawed in 1952 the Socialist Reich Party SRP that included members of the German Right Party (Deutsche Rechtspartei DRP) after its collapse in 1949. Continuity of the party's program was maintained: DRP (Deutsche Rechtspartei) → SRP (Socialist Reich Party) → DRP (Deutsche Reichspartei) → today's NPD (National Democratic Party of Germany). In its program the NPD proposes revisions to the national borders and appreciation of the Third Reich achievements.