► The Bundestag adopts (almost unanimously) the second amnesty. It included so-called "acts committed during the disintegration of the state". From now on anyone who from 1 October 1944 to 31 July 1945 committed a grave crime "in carrying out its duties arising from the official or administrative service, in particular carrying out the orders" can sleep peacefully. At stake were acts punishable by up to three years in prison. The direct result of this amnesty was such that the number of proceedings initiated by the German prosecutor's office declined from 2 500 in 1950 to just 183 in 1954.
And so - says prominent historian Norbert Frei - "in the mid-50s almost nobody (except guilty of the most serious crimes, and those have fled to America) has to fear that they would be disturbed by the state or the justice system. Almost all of them were acquitted or justified".
The British newspaper "News Chronicle" (1954) asked on the title page "Are the Nazis coming back?". And German weekly "Der Spiegel" revealed that Werner Pfromm (head of the Cologne prosecutor's office in Cologne in 1974-1980) was before 1945 a member of the NSDAP Officers Corps. In 1944 Pfromm's superiors released this opinion about him: "Convinced National Socialist, eminently suited to conduct political work and the Nazi propaganda". "Der Spiegel" provided evidence of how Pfromm discontinued proceedings against ex-Nazis held in Cologne.
► October 23rd. At the NATO Council meeting it was decided to end the occupation of West Germany, granting them the right to rebuild armed forces and the acceptance to join the North Atlantic Alliance.