1949

► The Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS veterans formed a secret army which ultimately was to be made up of 40 000 fighters. The project was a top secret and prepared without the knowledge and authorization of the German government. The leading representatives of future German armed forces were involved in planning the organization. The coordinator of the secret army plan was Albert Schnez. Coauthors were Hans Speidel (in 1957-1963 chief commander of NATO forces in Central Europe) and Adolf Heusinger (later chairman of the NATO Military Committee). The organization functioned against the law of the controlled territory which forbade the creation of paramilitary organizations. West German intelligence learned of the existence of the organization a year later when Schnez offered the state authorities the use of his unit. The Chancellor's Office ordered the intelligence control of the organization. The secret army still functioned until 1953 - after the founding of the Bundeswehr when it become unnecessary. Date of the dismissal is unknown.

Since 4th November 1957 Albert Schnez has served in the Bundeswehr where he quickly overcame the ranks of promotion and became Chief of Staff of the Land Forces. The case was first disclosed in April 2014 and published by "Der Spiegel" in May 2014. 321-page report remained unnoticed in the archives of the BND (Federal Intelligence Service - Bundesnachrichtendienst) for nearly 60 years. Today we know that Albert Schnez was negotiating with the former SS Obersturmbannführer Otto Skorzenny. Also he maintained contacts with the League of German Youth (Bund Deutscher Jugend) and its paramilitary unit Technischer Dienst (technical services) having in its ranks former Nazi officials.
Both organizations as the far-right were banned in 1953.
► May 18th. John J. McCloy (see year 1947) resigned from the World Bank presidency and became the US High Commissioner for Germany. He oversees the creation of the Federal Republic of Germany. He helped in granting a number of German war criminals a pardon - especially leading industrialists such as Friedrich Flick, Alfried Krupp and Martin Sandberger.
McCloy also pardoned Ernest von Weizsäcker, Josef Dietrich and Joachim Peiper (responsible for the massacre of Allied prisoners of war at Malmedy during the offensive in the Ardennes).

► May 23rd. The Constitution of West Germany came into force. The creation of the Federal Republic of Germany. Art. 116 of the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany: 1) German national in the sense of this Constitution subject to other regulations is the one who has German nationality or as fugitive from war or as expelled as German national or their spouse or descendant has been adopted in the area of he German Reich as per territorial status on December 31, 1937. Immediately after the World War II in the Federal Republic of Germany people affected by forced displacement were frequently described as "Fluechtlinge"  (refugees). However with time this term was superseded by the term "Vertriebene" (displaced or expelled). From 40s' this word was used more and more frequently and consolidated in the political and legal language in Germany including many documents with "expellees". Over time the word "expelled" has become widely used by all German politicians, historians and journalists. In the international law prevails term "refugees" (ang. Refugees) and "forced displacement", "forced migration" or "population transfer". The term "expellees" is not correct because it suggests that the Germans were mainly displaced by force. In fact most of them were evacuated on the orders of the German authorities (eg. Wehrmacht ordered 95% of Wroclaw (gem. Breslau) German inhabitants to leave, transforming the city into a fortress). In accordance with the Article 116 of the Constitution of Germany, German national is also the one who during the war lived in the house of forcibly expelled Pole and after the war was moved to Germany.
► July 25th. In the St. Paul's Church in Frankfurt writer Thomas Mann received the Goethe Prize. Thomas Mann emigrated from Germany in 1933. Shortly after the war ended in 1945 the writer speaks memorable words:
"Everyone has something in common with the German destiny and German guilt, if one was born a German."

► August 14th. The first free elections to the Bundestag of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The first president of the Federal Republic of Germany was Theodor Heuss. In the years 1940 - 1945 Heuss as political editor wrote to the Nazi weekly magazine "Das Reich". The magazine was founded by the NSDAP at the initiative of the Third Reich propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels, who had his own reoccurring column in "Das Reich". Under such leadership Germany began to gradually withdraw from the policy of denazification and to seek amnesty for Nazi war criminals. German society began to be presented as deluded and deceived by Hitler who was blamed for all Nazi crimes. The process of denazification was de facto interrupted by the start of the Cold War. Many officials of the Third Reich and even the Nazi security apparatus officers took an active part in the political and German public life. This convenient for Germans interpretation of the historical memory lasted ten years. A turning point in the German consciousness was the process of Adolf Eichmann which started in 1960.

Theodor Heuss i Konrad Adenauer

Theodor Heuss i Konrad Adenauer

► September 15th. Konrad Adenauer was appointed the first German Chancellor. He held this position until 1963. In 1951-1955 he was also a foreign minister. He played a prominent role in the European integration processes contributing to the creation of the EEC and the Euratom, he also introduced Germany to the ECSC and the Council of Europe. Konrad Adenauer is one of the so-called Fathers of Europe. He pursued a policy of denazification and the rearmament of Germany, as well as non-recognition of the GDR and the border on the Oder and Neisse rivers. He had a decisive impact on the introduction of Germany to the Western political and military structures - NATO and the Western European Union.

► Ludwig Erhard is appointed the German Minister of Economy, he is the future Chancellor, the chief architect of the German "economic miracle". After the war Erhard was an economic adviser in the American occupation zone. A close associate and consultant of Erhard was Otto Ohlendorf - a war criminal who as commander of Einsatzgruppe D in 1941-1942 was responsible for murdering 90 000 people. Erhard and Ohlendorf were in agreement that the priority is a stable currency. Both were aware of the importance of the occupation authorities goodwill. Above all Erhard pondered how to extend the reach of German industry on the whole destroyed European continent. The answer was simple - the voluntary surrender of European countries sovereignty in the framework of an international organization. Thus began the unification of Europe.

► Bundestag resolved unanimously (including the communist faction votes) the Amnesty Act (ie. federal amnesty). The Ministry of Justice officials preparing the draft document were almost exclusively ex-Nazis. The amnesty covered crimes punishable by up to six months or a suspended one year in prison or fined up to 10 thousand marks. By 31st January 1951 about 800 thousand criminals benefited from this law. As a consequence of the federal amnesty law enforcement most of the Nazi participants in the "Kristallnacht" avoided punishment.
Also the responsible for economic crimes committed during World War II were granted a pardon.

An example of a "benefit" that the amnesty resolution implementation brought was a career of Emil Puhl: in years 1935 - 1945 Member of the Supervisory Board of Deutsche Golddiskontbank, since 1944 its Vice-President, since September 1937 a Chairman of the Supervisory Board of Discount AG, Chairman of the Reichskreditkassen Board and
a board member of several other banks and companies in the days of the Third Reich. In April 1949 Emil Puhl was sentenced to 5 years in prison and in December 1949 he got released.
On March 14th 1950 Puhl became a consultant for BIS Bank for International Settlements and since September 25th 1952 he was already a board member.

► In October the Socialist Reich Party SRP was formed. The whole five-persons party board was created by people with Nazis past. In the party council 11 of the 21 members belonged to the former Nazi political group. In 1952 the SRP was outlawed. After the dissolution of the party some activists joined the German Reich Party DRP which even in 1960 had 24 (from 33) board members that belonged in the past to the NSDAP. DRP party officially advocated the rehabilitation of soldiers of the Third Reich and the reunification of Germany. In 1965 the German Reich Party was formally dissolved. Its work continues since 1964 National Democratic Party of Germany - currently the largest neo-Nazi party in Germany. In its program NDP calls for revisions to national borders, among others with Poland and appreciation of the achievements of the National Socialist Third Reich. Currently the party has about 7 000 members. NPD receives annually 600,000 euro from the state budget. In this way the German political parties care about the continuity of the NSDAP program: NSDAP → SRP → DRP → NPD.
► In addition to the self-help supporting organizations the Nazis could count on the official government help - in 1949 the Central Office for Legal Aid was established by the Federal Ministry of Justice. Its task was to provide legal aid and the "right of defense" to German prisoners held abroad or in Allied prisons - also in Spandau where the prominent Nazis convicted in the Nuremberg trials were serving their sentences.

► Publication of Karin Magnussen's research results - the research assistant of Josef Mengele. During the war Karin Magnussen worked with the "Angel of Death" Josef Mengele.
Since autumn 1941 Karin Magnussen worked at the Institute of Anthropology, Heredity and Eugenics in Berlin-Dahlem. In her research she focused on inheritance of eye color.
In the second half of 1944 Magnussen received from Josef Mengele eyes of victims of his pseudo-medical experiments in Auschwitz-Birkenau. It was no less than 40 pairs of eyes.
Hungarian prisoner pathologist Miklos Nyiszli was forced to prepare some of the shipments.

After the war Magnussen continued her studies in Bremen. The work ended in 1949 and the research results conducted on the basis of "human material" from Auschwitz were published in a book entitled On the relationship between histological distribution of pigment, Iris color and pigmentation of the eyeball of the human eye. Since 1950 Magnussen worked as a biology teacher in a high school in Bremen. Until 1964 she was publishing essays in scientific journals. In 1970 she retired and died in 1977. Karin Magnussen the whole life justified the Nazi racial ideology and denied that Mengele allegedly killed children for their research.