► 31st January. McCloy's amnesty. From 17 November 1947 to 31 July 1948 the US military tribunal judged 12 defendants in the so-called "Krupp Trail."
The main accused was Alfred Krupp. The indictment included crimes against peace, robbery, deportation, exploitation of slave labor and participation in the incitemento war. Alfred Krupp was sentenced to 12 years in prison and confiscation of all his assets and Heinrich Leo Korsch to 6 years in prison. The other defendants received sentences ranging from 2 to 12 years in prison. On the basis of the "McCloy's amnesty" capital punishment, fines and confiscation of property were repealed. All industrialists, including Krupp, were released and the property "earned" in the time of war was returned to them. The Alfred Krupp factories employed 100,000 slave laborers from concentration camps and 70% of them died as a result of brutal treatment by the SS.
► Demonstration of Germans against the execution of death sentences on Nazis convicted at Nuremberg, Landsberg 7 January 1951.
► Denazification Chamber in Munich sentenced Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski to 10 years in a labor camp but quickly commuted the sentence to a house arrest.
Von dem Bach was responsible for the deaths of about 230,000 people. The criminal was writing with a truly German pedantry Wartime Diary. At the date of 7 August 1944 we read: (...) in the morning I'm fighting in the front line. Amazing feeling, we fight for each house, burning whole streets, mountains of corpses.
Under date September 29 he wrote: In these days I became part of a history. My sons can be proud of me.
And on October 5th Erich von dem Bach sent to Himmler his final report:
1. The duration of the operation: 1.08-5.10.1944
2. Command: SS-Obergr. Police Gen. v. Dem Bach
3. The losses of the enemy:
a) counted killed insurgents 1559
b) the estimated loss, including population: over 100 000
c) injured: 15 000
d) taken prisoner: 17 443 Home Army including the chief commander, five other generals and 2028 officers and sub-officers
►10th April. The next legislative measure to rehabilitate war criminals was the adoption by the Bundestag (almost unanimously, two abstentions) "Act in the regulation of legal situation of persons referred to in Art. 131 of the Constitution ". The law restored the ability to act as a civil servant for those who had such functions before 8 May 1945 (except classified as 1st or 2nd category of offenders). Officials released in this way were defined as a person 131er. By virtue of this Act a number of Nazi officials, dignitaries and military have been re-enrolled in social and political life. So soon after the war Nazis were working in the judiciary, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and eight were ambassadors.
In total about 300 thousand of government officials and soldiers of the Third Reich were legally reintroduced to work. The law covered also - although it is hard to believe - most of Gestapo officers. It is true that in the preamble it was stated that the Act does not apply to the Gestapo. But further it covered those officers who were referred to the Gestapo "through official channels". And that is practically everyone because the Gestapo was created from a span off separate division of the criminal police. They found a loophole to clear the entire managerial staff of Gestapo which was taken in just "through the official channels".
► 18th April. Under the intergovernmental agreement signed in Paris (Paris Treaty) by representatives of six European countries, ie. Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, West Germany and Italy the European Coal and Steel Community was formally established - the precursor of today's European Union.
► Registration and an official launch of the association Stille Hilfe (Silent Help) - the full name Stille Hilfe und für Kriegsgefangene Internierte - Silent assistance for prisoners of war and interned persons. It was one of many organizations created to support the former SS men. The organization was established just after the war by Helena Countess Elisabeth von Isenburg, the wife of a Nazi scientist. She was helped by Gudrun Burwitz, the daughter of Heinrich Himmler Reichsführer-SS, Chief of Police, and Minister of the Interior in Nazi Germany. Currently still prominent symbol of Stille Hilfe. The aim of the organization was to help former Nazis in escaping from Europe, mainly to South American countries. Currently, Buenos Aires confirms an admission to their territory after the war tens of thousands of Nazis. Nazi war criminals issued 5,000 Argentinian visas.
That's pne of the reasons why only 1 out of 10 perpetrators of the concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau was punished.
Stille Hilfe initially (since 1946) was a secret organization. But officially registered in 1951 which enabled carrying out fundraising for rescuing criminals from prosecutions, covering the legal and judicial procedings costs, providing them with "decent retirement". The organization facilitated the return to the society and the impunity of criminals like Klaus Barbie, the Butcher of Lyon, Erich Priebke (murderer of Italian partisans) and Anton Malloth (sadistic guard of the Theresienstadt concentration camp in Czechoslovakia). Gudrun Burwitz arranged for Malloth a stay in a luxury retirement home in Munich, where she visited him regularly twice a month. Not surprisingly, the daughter of Himmler is idolized by everyone - old and young - Nazis and called by them Princess "flamboyant Nazi princess". Gudrun was beloved daddy's girl. When she was 12, her father took her on a trip to Dachau, which she described in her diary: "Today we went to the SS concentration camp at Dachau. We saw everything we could. We saw gardening work. We saw a pear tree. We saw all the pictures painted by the prisoners. Great. And then we had plenty to eat. It was very nice." Simultaneously with Silent Assistance another powerful organization was born in Germany HIAG "Mutual Help Association of Former Armed Protection Members" (German: Hilfsgemeinschaft auf Gegenseitigkeit der Angehörigen der ehemaligen Waffen-SS). Its aim was a rehabilitation of the SS members or help in fleeing as well as an information and propaganda work (eg. monthly journal Der Freiwillige - "Volunteer"). In the 70s an organization had 70 000 former Waffen SS members and its cells were in every county town or city. HIAG was only banned in 1992. Silent Assistance is thriving until today. Gudrun Burwitz systematically sponsors activities of young neo-Nazi movements in Germany.
To the Stille Hilfe idea refers also, founded in 1979, Germany's largest neo-Nazi organization HNG Prisoners Aid (Hilfsorganisation für nationale und politische Gefangene Deren Angehörige). HNG declared support for imprisoned right-wing extremists, but in fact was strengthening its members in their Nazi views. After a series of high-profile searches of the HNG leaders premises in 2011, the organization was banned after 32 years of operation. After the war in Germany many other organizations were created to help the SS members escaping the justice: founded by Otto Skorzenny "Spider" (Stinne) or "Companions" (Kameradenwerk) and Martin Bormann (see 1946 years).
► In the Brazilian State Archives (Arquivo Historico) in Rio de Janeiro data of 20 thousand German citizens who came to this country between 1945 and 1959 were disclosed.
Many arrived under a false name and with an obscure past - explained Kurt Schrimm, the German Nazi hunter. It is a milestone on the way to reveal the truth. Thanks to these documents a model of a typical Nazi escape can be defined - Schrimm added. A fugitive appeared in the country alone to prepare the place and than get the family. As already known the Nazis often used documents issued to them by the International Red Cross. More than 800 high-ranking members of the SS and the NSDAP functionaries came to Argentina with such documents.
► Establishment of Bundeskriminalamt Federal Criminal Police Office BKA. BKA creators were former SS members Paul Dickopf and Rolf Holle. In 1959, 2/3 of the BKA officials were former SS men and 3/4 belonged to the Nazi party. Of 47 staff members at the time 33 were SS officers and only 2 did not have a Nazi past. Backup deputy was the SS commander Theo Saevecke. Even in 1969, 1/4 of the Federal Crime Office staff were former SS men, and half of them were former members of the NSDAP party.
► Konrad Adenauer the Chancellor of West Germany in years 1949-1963 said: "I think we should put an end to this sniffing out of Nazis. Take my word for it: if we start with that, who knows where it will end". Director of the Federal Chancellory of West Germany in Konrad Adenauer office was Hans Globke - an officer in the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Third Reich and co-author of the Nuremberg racial laws (Reich Citizenship Law).
► 22nd December. Herta Bothe was released from prison, she was convicted in the Luneburg trial for 10 years but released early. Herta Bothe was the camp guard in the Nazi concentration camps Ravensbrück, Bergen-Belsen and Stutthof. She fired at the prisoners for fun. After the war she married and changed her name to Lange.
► Otto Ambros, a chemist and a war criminal was set free. In the process of IG Farben Ambros was convicted to eight years in prison for war crimes and crimes against humanity. During the war he was responsible for the chemical arsenal of the Third Reich. He oversaw the construction and operation of plants in Dyhernfurth (now Brzeg Dolny) which produced tabun (toxic chemical agent) and ammunition. He also managed plants in Monowitz, where he used forced labor prisoners from Auschwitz-Birkenau. Since 1954, Otto Ambros was a very active entrepreneur - chairman, vice chairman or the board member of at least 12 largest German companies, and an adviser to American chemical companies like Dow Chemical.
► Heinrich Buetefisch left prison, a war criminal, a member of the IG Farben board. Sentenced in Nuremberg trial to six years in prison, he came out after three. One year later he became a member of the supervisory board of several companies, among others Ruhr-Chemie and Kohle-Öl-Chemie.
In 1964 Heinrich Buetefisch was awarded Grand Cross of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (Großes Verdienstkreuz). Because of violent public protests, after 16 days the prize was taken away from him.
► Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer was awarded the prestigious professorship of human genetics at the University of Münster, where he established one of the largest centers of genetics research in West Germany. Like many "racial hygienists" of the Nazi period, Verschuer was successful in redefining himself as a genetics researcher after the war, and avoided the taint of his work with Nazi eugenics. During the war Verschuer worked closely with Karin Magnussen (see 1949) and like her, but on a larger scale, was acquiring for their research hundreds of human exhibits derived from killed for this purpose prisoners. Josef Mengele, "The Angel of Death" was his doctoral student. After the war Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer was very highly respected scientist in Germany. Since 1956 he was also director of the Institute of Anthropology at the University of Freiburg. Even during the war Verschuer was admitted to the American Eugenics Society and he retained the membership until death. Verschuer died in 1969 in a car accident.