1948

► United States open their borders to refugees - 10 000 Nazis have fled to the USA back then. They were officers of various levels. Registering in the United States they lied saying for example that during the war they were farmers. Later Americans identified 137 criminals and condemned and expelled from the country only 60 of them. However none other countries wanted to accept them so they had their citizenship canceled but remained in the United States. Today we know that the US Justice Department collected the data on 70 000 Nazis.

► April 16th. The creation of the European Organization for Economic Co-operation (OEEC) as a consequence of the Marshall Plan. OEEC Organization was created by 18 Member States: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Holland, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, West Germany, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom and Italy.

► May 8th-10th. Hague Congress - the meeting of supporters of the idea of European unification took place in the building of the Dutch Parliament in Hague. The decisive role in this meeting played Konrad Adenauer the future Chancellor of Germany, one of so-called Fathers of Europe, and the first president of the EEC Walter Hallstein the creator of the Hallstein doctrine. This doctrine assumed invalidation of communist countries created after the World War II including Polish People's Republic. One of the elements of Hallstein Doctrine was not to maintain diplomatic relations with the countries of the Eastern bloc with exception of the USSR.

► June 20th. The pricing and the monetary reform in Germany (in the former American and British occupation zone). Reichsmark emission was stopped and Deutschmark Deutsche Mark (DM) reintroduced. The author of the currency reform was the economy minister in the government of Konrad Adenaeur, later German Chancellor - Ludwig Erhard.

In 1944 Erhard wrote a dissertation on "Financing the war and the consolidation of debt" in which he assumed that the war is already lost and presented his concept of the reform of the German economy after the war.
One of the Erhard's advisers was Otto Ohlendrof - Nazi war criminal, SS - Gruppenfurrer who as commander of Einsatzgruppe D in the period from June 1941 to March 1942was responsible for the murder of 90 000 people, mainly Jews. Erhard's work has been noticed in America so that in October 1946 the US governor of Bavaria appointed him a minister of trade and commerce. In October 1947 Erhard was appointed Chairman of the Special Board of Management for Money and Credit and started preparing in secret the currency reform. In March 1948 the Economic Council in Frankfurt (the nucleus of the German parliament) elected him to the position of  Director of the Board for Integrated Economic Areas.
► The Second World War is starting to deliver tangible benefits to the German economy - three years after the capitulation companies' capital assets such as equipment and buildings is larger than in 1936. An integral part of the German war machine was slave labor.
Before the US High Commissioner for Germany John J. McCloy issued in 1957 an amnesty for industrialists convicted war crimes, the Germans began to slowly release from prisons the prominent Nazis themselves.
Two Nazi industrialists: Alfried Krupp of Krupp Industries and Friedrich Flick, whose Flick Group held a 40% stake in Daimler-Benz, were released from prison after serving only three years of punishment.
Krupp and Flick are the most important figures in the Nazi economy. Those companies treat their labor like cattle, use them and kill afterwards. The company Krupp Industries quickly became one of the biggest economic powers in Europe.

Fragment of the exhibition panel:  Save the memory , 2005. Photo and a work card of seven years old Jan Farjan born April 3, 1936 r. (AFPNP)

Fragment of the exhibition panel: Save the memory, 2005. Photo and a work card of seven years old Jan Farjan born April 3, 1936 r. (AFPNP)

Here is an excerpt from the description of the international traveling exhibition "Forced labor. Germany, forced laborers and the war" opened in 2010:
20 million people from almost all European countries worked forcefully in favor of Nazi Germany, both in the occupied and controlled territories as well as in the Third Reich itself. The work which people were forced to do enabled Germany to sponsor the war and contributed to maintain the standard of living of the German society during this period. ,,German master race" claimed the absolute right to exploit the people of the conquered areas and those deemed ,,subhuman". Although to maintain the racist ideology at the beginning the Nazis were going to limit the forced labor of foreigners only to the occupied territory, the latest from 1942 forced labor camps and forced laborers became a part of everyday life in Nazi Germany. Forced laborers from all over Europe worked almost everywhere: in armaments factories and on construction sites, in agriculture, craft workshops, public institutions and private households. German soldier in occupied Poland or a houswife of Thuringia - all Germans had contact with forced laborers and almost everyone took part in it. Forced labor was not a secret for anyone. It was a crime that was happening in front of everyone.

Hanging of Polish forced laborer Julian Majka. The Poles who worked in the area were brought to the place of execution of Julian Majka. At this opportunity the Gestapo officer admonished them to not break the German law. Michelsneukirchen (Bavaria), 18 April 1941. (Source: Collections Vernon Schmidt, veteran of the 90th Infantry Division of the US Army, Fresno).

Hanging of Polish forced laborer Julian Majka. The Poles who worked in the area were brought to the place of execution of Julian Majka. At this opportunity the Gestapo officer admonished them to not break the German law. Michelsneukirchen (Bavaria), 18 April 1941. (Source: Collections Vernon Schmidt, veteran of the 90th Infantry Division of the US Army, Fresno).

Similarly Flick Group has built its pan-European empire quickly. Friedrich Flick has never agreed to pay the compensation to the forced laborers. He died in July 1972 at the age of 90, as the holder of a fortune worth more than $1 billion, the equivalent of £400 million (according to the exchange rate at that time). He was the richest man in Germany and the fifth richest man in the world. 48 thousand forced laborers of whom 80 % died due to brutal treatment, hunger and illness contributed to acquire these assets.
► De-nazification Commission releases Kurt Georg Kiesengera - future chancellor of Germany - absolved from all allegations of participation in Nazi crimes.
In 1933 he became a member of the Nazi party Kiesenger. From 1940 until 1945 he was the head of propaganda in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Third Reich.
► July 5th - 11th. The UNESCO Conference in the Pestalozzi Children's Village in Trogen, Switzerland concluded that the children abduction and extermination by the Germans during World War II as a crime against humanity. Children abduction was part of the German plan of settlement and Germanization of the Central and Eastern Europe, called General Eastern Plan. The plan was based on Nazi ideology ensuring a "living space" (Lebensraum) to the German "master race" (Herrenvolk, Herrenrasse).
For this purpose they planned to murder or Germanized Slavic populations living in the areas east of the border of the Third Reich before 1939, which was defined in the German racial policy as "sub-humans" (slawische Untermenschen). In the place of the Slavs after winning the war, they planned to settle Germans. It was suppose to be "Grossgermanische Reich" and dominate over the world (Weltherrschaft). About 4 million Poles was intended to keep alive as a slave labor.
Forcibly abducted children were placed in camps of racial selection. From there the children ended up in German families and those considered "worthless" were sent to the death camp in Auschwitz or to the children concentration camp in Lodz.
It is estimated that there was about 250 000 victims of the germanization program, most of those - 150 000 Polish. After the war only 25 000 returned to their country.
The largest expulsion of Poles was carried out in the Zamosc region. Historians estimate that about 110 000 people were displaced of which over 30 000 were children. After the war only 800 of them returned.
► July 30th. Finalization of the sixth Nuremberg trial - 24 members of the board of the chemical giant IG Farben (see 1945 years) faced the military tribunal. Only 13 of them were sentenced to a symbolic punishment of several years' imprisonment but also they did not serve the sentence to the end - all were released ahead of time and went back to work on the management board of IG Farben or its twin companies. In this way the war criminals were continuing their "work carriers" such as: Fritz ter Meer, Otto Ambros, Hermann Schmitz, Bütefisch Heinrich, Friedrich Jähne, Carl Krauch, Carl Wurster.

For example Friedrich Jähne was sentenced to 18 months in prison and left the Landsberg prison after 2.5 months. During the war Jähne as a member of the IG Farben board patrolled the concentration camp Buna-Werke several times, where his son was an engineer. From the son Friedrich Jähne learned about the mass murders that took place six kilometers from his office. As a free man Friedrich Jähne is a chairman of the board of the "new" Farbwerke Hoechst and Alfreds Messer GmbH. In 1962 he was awarded the Bavarian Order of Merit.

► August 31st. The Bishop Alois Hudal (Luigi Hudal), Roman Catholic bishop of Austrian origin sends a letter to the president of Argentina Juan Peron with a request to issue 5 000 visas for German "soldiers".
From at least 1938 (after the Anschluss of Austria) Alois Hudal was a German agent in the Vatican City. Evidence for this can be found in correspondence between central authorities, especially between the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Church Minister of the Third Reich which raises the matter of a money transfer for the Bishop Hudal's services. This correspondence was kept in a briefcase of Nazi Ministry of Foreign Affairs entitled "The Bishop Hudal AA Inland I-D tom 16/31”.

After the World War II Alois Hudal, called "brown Bishop", as a high Vatican official helped the German Nazi criminals escape to South America as part of "Operation Rat Corridor" (Ratlines). Hudal took care of the refugees passports and visas, purchasing tickets for the journey and the money delivery. Thanks to his efforts a list of the monasteries which provided hospitality to the refugees without asking of their origins was created. It was called the monastic route or ratline. Alois Hudal helped in the escape of among the others such criminals as Josef Mengele, Adolf Eichmann, Alois Brunner, Walter Rauff, Franz Stangl, Gustav Wagner, Ante Pavelic, Klaus Barbie, Gerhard Bohne, Kurt Christmann, Erich Priebke, Hans-Ulrich Rudel. It is estimated that about 5 000 Nazis fled to Argentina after the war: 1 500 to 2 000 to Brazil, 500 - 1000 to Chile and the rest to Paraguay and Uruguay.

► November 4th. The world premiere of "A Survivor from Warsaw", a music piece reciting voice, male choir and orchestra, composed by Austrian composer Arnold Schönberg.

"A Survivor from Warsaw" is a musical memorial for the victims of the Holocaust. The song is a cross between cantatas and dramatic monodrama. The text is a shocking almost journalistic report of a man from the Warsaw ghetto, victim of mass execution. Culmination are the brutal shouts of executioners, after which begins the episode countdown. Above the apocalyptic image rises a male choir singing, chanting a hymn to Adonai.