1962

► Wilhelm Koppe adopted a false name Lohmann and became a director of a chocolate factory in Bonn. Waffen-SS General Wilhelm Koppe was a Secretary of State for the government security. As the SS commander and the head of the police in the General Government Koppe was responsible for mass murders of Jews and Poles. After the war the Polish Underground State issued on Koppe a death sentence. On 11 July 1944 failed attempt of Koppe's assassination took place organizes by "Pegasus" Polish Battalion Parasol. Koppe was wounded but managed to escape. Koppe was arrested in Germany in 1960 but released on 19 April 1962 after a deposit of 30 thousand DM was paid in. The murdered was never punished for the crimes committed during the Second World War. In 1964 Koppe was prosecuted again accused of killing 145 000 people. But in 1966 the national court in Bonn closed the case due to accused poor health. Despite Poland's repeated requests, German authorities refused his release for extradition. Wilhelm Koppe died in Bonn in 1975.

Receiving flowers from children, from the left: SS-Gruppenführer Wilhelm Koppe, Heinrich Himmler i Gauleiter Fritz Bracht (source:  wikipedia.org )

Receiving flowers from children, from the left: SS-Gruppenführer Wilhelm Koppe, Heinrich Himmler i Gauleiter Fritz Bracht (source: wikipedia.org)

► The beginning of series of processes in the West German courts of Sonderkommando 1005 criminals who carried out the so-called Operation 1005 campain aimed at blurring the crimes committed by the Nazis in Eastern Europe. The action was based on the exhumation and burning of thousands of victims bodies.

Machine for grinding bones used during Exhumation Action, Janowski concentration camp (Simon Wiesenthal was a prisoner of this camp) (source:  collections.ushmm.org )

Machine for grinding bones used during Exhumation Action, Janowski concentration camp (Simon Wiesenthal was a prisoner of this camp) (source: collections.ushmm.org)

Each Sonderkommando consisted of SD members, the Security Police (Sipo) or the Order Police (Ordnungspolizei, in short Orpo) and more than 100 prisoners who were forced to open graves, exhumation of the Nazi victims, searching for any valuables and then burning the bodies. Many times these people were burying their own families, children and loved ones. They often couldn't cope mentally and committed suicide. Anyway after completing the task the prisoners were immediately killed. The head of the Operation 1005 was Paul Blobel who was tried by an American military tribunal and sentenced to death by hanging. Blobel confessed to the murder of some 15,000 men, women and children but the American court found that there were more than 59,000 people killed. Paul Blobel invented a method of cremation in special furnaces, which was applied for the first time in Chelmno extermination camp. German courts were much milder when judging Operation 1005 supervisors - Rudolf Theimer was sentenced to four years imprisonment.
► Legal term aiding and abetting murder was introduced in the German judiciary proceedings and used instead of murder. That resulted in much lenient sentences for Nazi criminals (e.g. Criminals from Chelmno Extermination Camp case 8 Ks 3/62, and also 103 other cases of members of the extermination camps in Auschwitz, Gross- Rosen, Stutthof, Belzec, Treblinka, Sachsenhausen, Sobibor, Mauthausen-Gusen). "There was one murderer and 60 million helpers - that's the appalling message of this theory" (Henry Solga).
► Raid on Aribert Heim. Aribert Heim was an Austrian Nazi doctor known as Dr. Death. Heim was accused of torturing and killing prisoners in various ways in the Mauthausen concentration camp, Austria. From October to December 1941 he was based near Linz, Austria, where he carried out experiments on Jews, similar to those performed at Auschwitz by Josef Mengele. According to the Holocaust survivors reports Heim used to inject into prisoners hearts various substances including gasoline, phenol and other poisons. It is also known that Heim was removing prisoners organs without anesthesia. Seems Heim was finding pleasure in torturing people. In 1942 Aribert Heim served in 6th SS Mountain Division Nord in Finland, Oulu hospital as a SS doctor. At the end of the war he was captured by US soldiers and sent to a camp for war prisoners in Lugwigsburgu. After his release in 1947 he worked in a hospital in Friedberg in Hesse. During that time he played ice hockey in the Nauheim sports club. He got married in 1949 and settled in Mannheim. Unsuccessfully on several occasions Heim sought to renounce his Austrian citizenship and to obtain a German one. From 1954 to 1962 he practiced as a gynecologist in Baden-Baden. In 1962 Heim was informed that the police was looking for him and fled to Egypt via Libya.

(źródło:  www.euronews.com )

(źródło: www.euronews.com)

Since that time he was in the center of a huge manhunt. An international warrant arrest was issued, which is valid to this day. The search for Aribert Heim was conducted in Latin America, Spain and Africa but he was never formally identified. In 2009 a German ZDF and a New York Times journalist discovered that Aribert Heim lived under a false name Tarek Farid Hussein in Egypt where he probably died of bowel cancer in 1992.

Efraim Zuroff from the Wiesenthal Center shows a photo of Aribert Heim (source:  www.ksta.de )

Efraim Zuroff from the Wiesenthal Center shows a photo of Aribert Heim (source: www.ksta.de)